Gender Development Index

National statistics on gender gaps in human development

  • Source: UNDP

The Gender Development Index (GDI), published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for disparities between women and men in 3 basic dimensions of human development using the same component indicators as in the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable, and a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the 3 dimensions. The health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth; the education dimension is measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more and expected years of schooling for children of school-entering age. The standard-of-living dimension is measured by gross national income per capita. The HDI uses the logarithm of income to reflect the diminishing importance of income with increasing gross national income (GNI). The scores for the 3 HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean. The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same methodology as in the HDI. It is a direct measure of gender gap, showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI. The GDI is calculated for 161 countries in 2015 and shows how much women are lagging behind their male counterparts in each dimension of human development. It facilitates understanding of the real gender gap in human development achievements and is useful in designing policy tools to close the gap. Resource Watch shows only a subset of the data set. For access to the full data set and additional information, see the Learn More link.

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Formal name

Gender Development Index (GDI)


The HDI/GDI simplifies and captures only part of what human development entails. It does not reflect on inequalities, poverty, human security, empowerment, and so on. Although updated annually, there may be a delay in the release of data from the previous year.

Suggested citation

United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report (year). "Gender Development Index." Retrieved from Accessed through Resource Watch, (date).


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

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